Ein Verdauungsschnaps, auch Digestif (von lateinisch digestio ‚Verdauung'; französisch digestif, -ve ‚die Verdauung betreffend', auch ‚verdauungsfördernd';. Die Verdauungsschnäpse sind fest in vielen Kulturen verankert. Was einen Digestif aus macht und warum man ihn nach dem Essen genießen. Aperitif und Digestif bilden die ideale Klammer für einen besonderen, genussvollen Anlass, z.B. ein perfekt arrangiertes Menü zu Hause oder im Restaurant.
Aperitif und DigestifWelcher Digestif passt zu welchem Essen? Wie serviert man sie richtig? ➤ Erfahre alles in unserem umfangreichen Ratgeber! Ein Verdauungsschnaps, auch Digestif, ist ein alkoholisches Getränk, das – im Gegensatz zum Aperitif – nach einer Mahlzeit getrunken wird. Aperitif und Digestif bilden die ideale Klammer für einen besonderen, genussvollen Anlass, z.B. ein perfekt arrangiertes Menü zu Hause oder im Restaurant.
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Astfel, prin demararea functiilor secretorii si motorii a organelor implicate are loc digestia. Digestia incepe in cavitatea bucala , odata cu masticatia alimentelor ce urmeaza a fi ingerate.
Saliva este secretata in cantitati mari, intre Saliva contine printre alteele, enzime digestive, precum amilaza salivara ptialina , ce intervine in degradarea chimica a polizaharidelor, transfomand amidonul in maltoza si lipaza linguala , care hidrolizeaza lanturile lungi de trigliceride in gliceride partiale si acizi grasi in stare libera.
De asemenea, saliva contine si mucus , o glicoproteina utilizata ca adjuvant in lubrifierea alimentelor si formarea bolului alimentar.
Dupa formarea bolusului se poate produce deglutitia inghitirea ce consta in transportul masei alimentare in esofag prin faringe.
Mecanismul este coordonat de centrii deglutitiei din medulla oblongata si puntea lui Varolio. Reflexul este initiat de receptorii tactili de la nivelul faringelui, pe masura ce bolul alimentar este impins prin intermediul limbii catre partea posterioara a cavitatii bucale.
Se desfasoara astfel in 0. Faringele reprezinta locul unde se intretaie calea digestiva cu cea respiratorie. Astfel, deoarece atat produsele alimentare cat si aerul trec prin faringe, epiglota , o lama cartilaginoasa se interpune in deschiderea laringeala in timpul deglutitiei pentru a preveni asfixierea alimentara.
Orofaringele , posterior cavitatii bucale ce se continua cu laringofaringele sunt portiunile din faringe prin care alimentele sunt transportate la acest nivel.
Astfel are loc timpul faringian al deglutitiei care dureaza pana la 2 s, trecerea aerului este temporar intrerupta, alimentele avand prioritate sa inainteze catre esofag.
Bolul alimentar este propulsat in esofag , prin relaxarea sfincterului esofagian superior , moment in care debuteaza timpul esofagian al deglutiei ce poate dura intre s.
Peretii esofagului contin o patura bistratificata de tesut muscular neted , cu fibre dispuse circular la interior si longitudinal catre exterior.
Fibrele musculare determina peristaltismul prin care alimentele sunt deplasate de-a lungul esofagului. Miscarile peristaltice se propaga sub forma de unde de contractie precedate de relaxare periodica.
Jonctiunea dintre esofag si stomac este prevazuta cu sfincterul esofagian inferior ce inchide orificiul cardia. Odata cu declansarea undelor peristaltice si pe masura ce bolul alimentar inainteaza catre stomac, prin cresterea presiunii intraesofagiene sfincterul esofagian inferior se relaxeaza si are loc finalizarea deglutitiei concomitent cu evacuarea bolului alimentar in stomac.
Alimentele sunt deplin digerate in intestinul subtire, iar stomacul asista mai mult la demontarea fizica a acestora inceputa in cavitatea bucala.
Peretii stomacului sunt formati din muschi extensibili ce ii confera acestuia capacitatea de a se adapta la continutul sau, contribuind in acelasi timp la digestie.
Bolul alimentar patrunde in stomac prin orificiul cardia , nivel la care incepe digestia gastrica, substantele alimentare fiind atacate sucul gastric , care contine apa, HCl, enzime si mucina.
Enzimelor din stomac le sunt asigurate conditii optime, acestea degradand substantele la un pH si o temperatura specifica.
Acidul gastric ajuta in procesul de denaturare al proteinelor, conferind pH-ul optim pentru reactiile in care este implicata pepsina si distruge microorganismele ingerate odata cu alimentele.
Main article: Midgut. Main article: Hindgut. Main article: Mesentery. I 12 ed. Philadelphia, PA: The Point. I 11 ed. Buenos Aires: Panamericana.
XI 5th ed. Madrid: Elsevier Health Sciences. BMC Developmental Biology. II 11a ed. Medical Physiology Boron.
II 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences. X 23rd ed. New York: Mc Graw Hill. Development of the digestive system. Stomodeum Buccopharyngeal membrane Rathke's pouch Tracheoesophageal septum Pancreatic bud Hepatic diverticulum.
Urorectal septum Proctodeum Cloaca Cloacal membrane. Categories : Embryology of digestive system. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Many times, these drinks are sweet, so expect popular digestifs to be port wines or dessert liqueurs.
However, they can be a bit herbal or bitter as well, if that is what you prefer. The difference between this drink and its pre-dinner counterpart is that the fact that these drinks typically have more alcohol in them.
They also tend to have more sugar—in case you want to use your cocktail as your dessert. Apparently these drinks are also supposed to settle your stomach, so you may find many of them made with fresh ginger.
This initially results in the production of chyme which when fully broken down in the small intestine is absorbed as chyle into the lymphatic system.
Most of the digestion of food takes place in the small intestine. Water and some minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood in the colon of the large intestine.
The waste products of digestion feces are defecated from the anus via the rectum. There are several organs and other components involved in the digestion of food.
The organs known as the accessory digestive organs are the liver , gall bladder and pancreas. Other components include the mouth , salivary glands , tongue , teeth and epiglottis.
The largest structure of the digestive system is the gastrointestinal tract GI tract. This starts at the mouth and ends at the anus , covering a distance of about nine 9 metres.
The largest part of the GI tract is the colon or large intestine. Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste matter is stored prior to defecation.
Most of the digestion of food takes place in the small intestine which is the longest part of the GI tract. A major digestive organ is the stomach.
Within its mucosa are millions of embedded gastric glands. Their secretions are vital to the functioning of the organ.
There are many specialised cells of the GI tract. These include the various cells of the gastric glands, taste cells , pancreatic duct cells , enterocytes and microfold cells.
Some parts of the digestive system are also part of the excretory system , including the large intestine. The mouth is the first part of the upper gastrointestinal tract and is equipped with several structures that begin the first processes of digestion.
The mouth consists of two regions; the vestibule and the oral cavity proper. The vestibule is the area between the teeth, lips and cheeks,  and the rest is the oral cavity proper.
Most of the oral cavity is lined with oral mucosa , a mucous membrane that produces a lubricating mucus , of which only a small amount is needed.
Mucous membranes vary in structure in the different regions of the body but they all produce a lubricating mucus, which is either secreted by surface cells or more usually by underlying glands.
The mucous membrane in the mouth continues as the thin mucosa which lines the bases of the teeth. The main component of mucus is a glycoprotein called mucin and the type secreted varies according to the region involved.
Mucin is viscous, clear, and clinging. Underlying the mucous membrane in the mouth is a thin layer of smooth muscle tissue and the loose connection to the membrane gives it its great elasticity.
The roof of the mouth is termed the palate and it separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. The palate is hard at the front of the mouth since the overlying mucosa is covering a plate of bone ; it is softer and more pliable at the back being made of muscle and connective tissue, and it can move to swallow food and liquids.
The soft palate ends at the uvula. At either side of the soft palate are the palatoglossus muscles which also reach into regions of the tongue.
These muscles raise the back of the tongue and also close both sides of the fauces to enable food to be swallowed. There are three pairs of main salivary glands and between and 1, minor salivary glands, all of which mainly serve the digestive process, and also play an important role in the maintenance of dental health and general mouth lubrication, without which speech would be impossible.
All of these glands terminate in the mouth. The largest of these are the parotid glands —their secretion is mainly serous. The next pair are underneath the jaw, the submandibular glands , these produce both serous fluid and mucus.
The serous fluid is produced by serous glands in these salivary glands which also produce lingual lipase. The third pair are the sublingual glands located underneath the tongue and their secretion is mainly mucous with a small percentage of saliva.
Within the oral mucosa , and also on the tongue, palates, and floor of the mouth, are the minor salivary glands; their secretions are mainly mucous and they are innervated by the facial nerve CN7.
There are other serous glands on the surface of the tongue that encircle taste buds on the back part of the tongue and these also produce lingual lipase.
Lipase is a digestive enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of lipids fats. These glands are termed Von Ebner's glands which have also been shown to have another function in the secretion of histatins which offer an early defense outside of the immune system against microbes in food, when it makes contact with these glands on the tongue tissue.
Saliva moistens and softens food, and along with the chewing action of the teeth, transforms the food into a smooth bolus.
The bolus is further helped by the lubrication provided by the saliva in its passage from the mouth into the esophagus.
Also of importance is the presence in saliva of the digestive enzymes amylase and lipase. Amylase starts to work on the starch in carbohydrates , breaking it down into the simple sugars of maltose and dextrose that can be further broken down in the small intestine.
Lipase starts to work on breaking down fats. Lipase is further produced in the pancreas where it is released to continue this digestion of fats.
The presence of salivary lipase is of prime importance in young babies whose pancreatic lipase has yet to be developed.
As well as its role in supplying digestive enzymes , saliva has a cleansing action for the teeth and mouth. Saliva also contains a glycoprotein called haptocorrin which is a binding protein to vitamin B When it reaches the duodenum, pancreatic enzymes break down the glycoprotein and free the vitamin which then binds with intrinsic factor.
Food enters the mouth where the first stage in the digestive process takes place, with the action of the tongue and the secretion of saliva.
The tongue is a fleshy and muscular sensory organ , and the first sensory information is received via the taste buds in the papillae on its surface.
If the taste is agreeable, the tongue will go into action, manipulating the food in the mouth which stimulates the secretion of saliva from the salivary glands.
The liquid quality of the saliva will help in the softening of the food and its enzyme content will start to break down the food whilst it is still in the mouth.
The first part of the food to be broken down is the starch of carbohydrates by the enzyme amylase in the saliva.
The tongue is attached to the floor of the mouth by a ligamentous band called the frenum  and this gives it great mobility for the manipulation of food and speech ; the range of manipulation is optimally controlled by the action of several muscles and limited in its external range by the stretch of the frenum.
The tongue's two sets of muscles, are four intrinsic muscles that originate in the tongue and are involved with its shaping, and four extrinsic muscles originating in bone that are involved with its movement.
Taste is a form of chemoreception that takes place in the specialised taste receptors , contained in structures called taste buds in the mouth. Taste buds are mainly on the upper surface dorsum of the tongue.
The function of taste perception is vital to help prevent harmful or rotten foods from being consumed. There are also taste buds on the epiglottis and upper part of the esophagus.
The taste buds are innervated by a branch of the facial nerve the chorda tympani , and the glossopharyngeal nerve.
Taste messages are sent via these cranial nerves to the brain. The brain can distinguish between the chemical qualities of the food.
The five basic tastes are referred to as those of saltiness , sourness , bitterness , sweetness , and umami. The detection of saltiness and sourness enables the control of salt and acid balance.
The detection of bitterness warns of poisons—many of a plant's defences are of poisonous compounds that are bitter. Sweetness guides to those foods that will supply energy; the initial breakdown of the energy-giving carbohydrates by salivary amylase creates the taste of sweetness since simple sugars are the first result.
The taste of umami is thought to signal protein-rich food. Sour tastes are acidic which is often found in bad food. The brain has to decide very quickly whether the food should be eaten or not.
It was the findings in , describing the first olfactory receptors that helped to prompt the research into taste. The olfactory receptors are located on cell surfaces in the nose which bind to chemicals enabling the detection of smells.
It is assumed that signals from taste receptors work together with those from the nose, to form an idea of complex food flavours. Teeth are complex structures made of materials specific to them.
They are made of a bone-like material called dentin , which is covered by the hardest tissue in the body— enamel. This results in a much larger surface area for the action of digestive enzymes.
The teeth are named after their particular roles in the process of mastication— incisors are used for cutting or biting off pieces of food; canines , are used for tearing, premolars and molars are used for chewing and grinding.
Mastication of the food with the help of saliva and mucus results in the formation of a soft bolus which can then be swallowed to make its way down the upper gastrointestinal tract to the stomach.
The epiglottis is a flap of elastic cartilage attached to the entrance of the larynx. It is covered with a mucous membrane and there are taste buds on its lingual surface which faces into the mouth.
The epiglottis functions to guard the entrance of the glottis , the opening between the vocal folds. It is normally pointed upward during breathing with its underside functioning as part of the pharynx, but during swallowing, the epiglottis folds down to a more horizontal position, with its upper side functioning as part of the pharynx.
In this manner it prevents food from going into the trachea and instead directs it to the esophagus, which is behind.
During swallowing, the backward motion of the tongue forces the epiglottis over the glottis' opening to prevent any food that is being swallowed from entering the larynx which leads to the lungs; the larynx is also pulled upwards to assist this process.
Stimulation of the larynx by ingested matter produces a strong cough reflex in order to protect the lungs. The pharynx is a part of the conducting zone of the respiratory system and also a part of the digestive system.
It is the part of the throat immediately behind the nasal cavity at the back of the mouth and above the esophagus and larynx.
The pharynx is made up of three parts. The lower two parts—the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx are involved in the digestive system.
The laryngopharynx connects to the esophagus and it serves as a passageway for both air and food. Air enters the larynx anteriorly but anything swallowed has priority and the passage of air is temporarily blocked.
The pharynx is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus of the vagus nerve. The pharynx joins the esophagus at the oesophageal inlet which is located behind the cricoid cartilage.
The esophagus , commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach.
The esophagus is continuous with the laryngopharynx. It passes through the posterior mediastinum in the thorax and enters the stomach through a hole in the thoracic diaphragm —the esophageal hiatus , at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra T It is divided into cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts.
The pharynx joins the esophagus at the esophageal inlet which is behind the cricoid cartilage. At rest the esophagus is closed at both ends, by the upper and lower esophageal sphincters.
The opening of the upper sphincter is triggered by the swallowing reflex so that food is allowed through. The sphincter also serves to prevent back flow from the esophagus into the pharynx.
The esophagus has a mucous membrane and the epithelium which has a protective function is continuously replaced due to the volume of food that passes inside the esophagus.
During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus. The epiglottis folds down to a more horizontal position to direct the food into the esophagus, and away from the trachea.
Once in the esophagus, the bolus travels down to the stomach via rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscles known as peristalsis.
The lower esophageal sphincter is a muscular sphincter surrounding the lower part of the esophagus. The gastroesophageal junction between the esophagus and the stomach is controlled by the lower esophageal sphincter, which remains constricted at all times other than during swallowing and vomiting to prevent the contents of the stomach from entering the esophagus.
As the esophagus does not have the same protection from acid as the stomach, any failure of this sphincter can lead to heartburn.
The diaphragm is an important part of the body's digestive system. The muscular diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity where most of the digestive organs are located.
The suspensory muscle attaches the ascending duodenum to the diaphragm. This muscle is thought to be of help in the digestive system in that its attachment offers a wider angle to the duodenojejunal flexure for the easier passage of digesting material.
The diaphragm also attaches to, and anchors the liver at its bare area.
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